Education - Profile

 

INTRODUCTION

District Primary Education Programme has been launched in this District since November 1997. The main criteria for selecting this district is the lower level of the Female literacy rate than the national literacy at the time of introduction of District Primary Education Programme.

AIMES AND OBJECTIVES OF DPEP

1.      Enrolment of all the school age children in the age group of 6 to 11.

2.      Retention of all the enrolled children in schools without any dropout.

3.      Completing five year of Primary Education with quality.

4.      Promoting of Girls Education.

5.      Provision of Integrated Education for the Disabled Children.

6.      Involving the community for the better functioning of schools.

SCHEMES DPEP

Buildings were taken up for construction both by the Public Works Department and the community participation work. 69 schools were benefited under the scheme.

ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS

In order to provide inclusive education for the drop out and non enrolled children including migrated and child labour children. Alternative schools have been started in all blocks except Veppanthattai . At present o 9 centres are functioning in the following blocks.

1.

Perambalur

6 centres.

2

Alathur

3 centres.

Beneficiaries

180 children.

 

SC / ST SPECIAL COACHING CLASSES

To promote girls education, particularly children belongs to SC/ST community, Special coaching classes were started for the above girl children in 3,4 & 5 standards. Being the first generation learners, the SC/ST children could not complete the children of the other social groups. But now from February 2002 onwards, SC/ST boys children have also been included under the above scheme. Disabled children have also been included along with SC/ST children.

Beneficiaries :

Total No. of schools

172

Total No. of centres

342

Beneficiaries SC/ST

9555 (4919 + 4636)

Beneficiaries IED

484(299+185)

Total Beneficiaries

9939(5218+4821)

TRAINING PROGRAMMES

Quality improvement is one of the major objective of DPEP. Many of the schools have multigrade teaching situation i.e., single teacher has to handle more than one classes. The teacher are given following types of training to improve their teacher skills in such situations.

1.      To teach more than one subjects.

2.      Refresher cum Booster course.

3.      English training to teacher handling 3,4 and 5 standards.

4.      Training an Activity Based joyful teaching methodology.

5.      Training to newly appointed teachers.

6.      Training to teachers who handled SC/ST special coaching classes.

7.      Preparation of Teaching Learning material.

Teaching learning material and infrastructure grant:

All the teacher working in Primary classes are provided with the above grant at Rs. 500/- every year for purchasing teaching material. Rs. 2000/- per years sanctioned to all schools to improve the infrastructure facilities.

Early Childhood Education

The ECE centres facilitate the girl child to attend schools by relieving them from the sibling care responsibilities. Being the feeder institution of Primary Schools, the Child welfare organizers are given two days training programme every year . Apart from that, the DPEP has also programmed to supply teacher and learning materials at Rs.1000/- per centre.

Integrated Education for the Disabled Children:

Universaliation of Primary Education cannot be prescribed unless we mainstream all the disabled children. 9 special teachers as various impairments are working to cater to the needs of the 384 disabled children. One medical camp was conducted at Perambalur Block. Similar camps are programmed in the remaining blocks. Aids and appliances have also been supplied with the help of Rehabilitation Department.

Education - SSA Frame Work :-

A PROGRAMME FOR UNIVERSAL ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

DEVELOPMENTS SO FAR

  • Cabinet approval on 16 November 2000

  • National Mission constituted on 3 January 2001

  • SSA Framework for implementation approved and circulated for action

  • PPA funds sanctioned for 294 non-DPEP districts and 54 district in 30States/Uts.

  • Annual Plan 2001-2002 approved for 223 non-DPEP districts and 218 DPEP districts in 21 States.

OBJECTIVES OF SSA

  • All children in school by 2003

  • All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007

  • All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010

  • Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life

  • Bridge all gender and social category gaps

  • Universal retention by 2010

SSA AS A FRAMEWORK AND AS A PROGRAMME

  • FRAMEWORK- Reflecting all investments in elementary education in a district Government and non-Government.

  • PROGRAMME – Additional resource provision for UEE under a Separate Budget head.

MAIN FEATURES

  • Institutional reforms in Centre and States-to improve efficiency of delivery system

  • Sustainable financing – long term partnership between Centre and States

  • Community Ownership – VEC, PRIs, Women groups

  • Capacity building – NCERT / NIEPA / NCTE / SCERT / SIEMAT / DIET to have a major role

  • Community – based monitoring with transparency

  • Focus on girls and other special groups

  • District pre-project phase

  • Thrust on quality

  • Central role of teachers – Focus on their development needs through BRCs / CRCs

  • Habitation as a unit of planning

  • District Elementary Education plans

FINANCIAL DETAILS

  • Sharing between Centre and State

  • 85:15 in IX plan, 75:25 in X plan and 50:50 thereafter

  • State Government to maintain their investment at 1999-2000 level SSA share will be above this

  • All present schemes, except MDM scheme and Externally aided programmes, will converge after IX plan

  • District Plan would show funds under various components like PMGY, JGSY, PMRY, MP?MLA funds, etc.,

  • All legal agreements related to Externally Aided funds would continue to apply

ACTIVITIES AND NORMS UNDER SSA

  • Teachers-One teacher for 40 children; at lease two in a primary, one for every classroom in Upper Primary

  • New Scfhools

  • Primary, a school within one Kilometere of every habitation

  • One UP school for two PSs, provided enough number of students are there.

  • Classrooms – A room for every teacher/grade, in UP a separate room for HM

  • Free textbooks- to all SC, ST girls up to upper primary, provided State does not give it already

  • Civil Works

  • - 33% limit on expenditure on civil works

  • - Rs.5000 per year per school for repair and maintenance by the community.

  • TLE for primary at Rs.10000/- for upper primary at Rs.50,000/-

  • Rs.2000 school grant, Rs.500 teacher grant for primary and upper primary

  • Teacher Training-20 day in-service, 60 day referesher for untrained teachers and 30 day orientation for newly-recruited teachers

  • Setting up of SIEMAT- one time Rs.3 crores grant

  • Training of community leaders

  • $Rs. 1200 per disabled child

  • Rs.125lakhs for any innovative activity for girls, SC/ST, ECCFE, Computer education, up to Rs. 50 lakhs in a district

  • 6% limit on management cost

  • Rs.1500 per school for monitoring, supervision, research and evaluation

  • Provision for BRC/ CRC – civil works and deeployment of coordinator

  • interventions for out-of-school children-as per norms already approved under the EGS & AIE scheme

FOCUS IN PREPARATORY PHASE OF SSA

  • Micro planning, school mapping, household surveys;

  • Community mobilization, school-based activities;

  • Establishing information system with provision for computers, office equipment

  • Training and orientation of community leaders, PRIs, etc.,

  • Baseline diagnostic studies

PLANNING PROCESS

  • Habitation as unit of planning

  • Perspective plan and Annual plans

  • Household survey to prepare Village/Slum level Education Register

  • Village/Slum level plans to provide basis for district Elementary Education Plans

  • Formation of core group of Government/non-Government Personnel.

WHAT A DISTRICT PLAN SHOULD INCLUDE

  • Survey of

    • Available school facilities

    • 0 – 6 and 6 – 14 age – group population with projections till 2010

  • Relocation of teacher units, and after rationalization arriving at requirement of teachers.

  • Training requirements and steps to fulfill these.

  • Other requirements like school facilities, TLMs, etc.,

  • Civil work plan

  • Strategy to tackle marginal groups.

  • Effective Community participation – VECs, etc.,

  • Convergence.

DISTRICT PLANS – APPRAISAL

  • Plans will be appraised by National/State level missions.

  • Things to be assessed in appraisal

    • Level of mobilization and community participation

    • Identification of problem areas

    • Sanctity of data relied on for planning

    • Interventions suggested for various components

    • Convergence

  • Norms to be followed as given in SSA/State-specific norms

MONITORING

  • Community – based monitoring with full transparency

  • Statement of expenditure in each school to be public document

  • Joint review by Government of India and the State Government

  • 2 Supervision missions in a year

  • Detailed monitoring guidelines and reporting format already communicated to states – prescribing format for reporting at each level.

  • Concept of nodal officers for weaker districts.

QUALITY ISSUES

  • Decentralized curriculum development-district level

  • Focus on good quality books.

  • Use of local dialects

  • Primacy to cultural activity/sports/art, etc.,

  • Content-based and Motivational teacher training

  • Child to Child learning

  • Resource groups at State/District/Sub-District level

  • Increasing role of DIETs / BRCs / CRCs

MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

  • National level

    • National Mission headed by Prime Minister

    • Executive Committee, headed by Minister of HRD

    • JS (EE) as Director Generazl; of National Mission

  • State Level

    • State Mission Authority to be headed by CM

    • State implementation Society for implementation to be implemented through mainstream administrative structure; only contractual appointments permitted.

IMPORTANT STATE LEVEL ACTIONS

  • Completing pre-project activity

  • Implementation of Annual Plan already sacntioned

  • Preparation of Annual Action Plan 2002-2003

  • Preparation of Perspective plan till 2010

  • Teacher Rationalization and filling up of vacancies in institutions

  • Proper monitoring and periodic reporting.

Education - Continuing Education :-

Policy Initiative

The Scheme of Continuing Education (CE) was launched in 1995 as a fully funded centrally sponsored scheme. The scheme initially envisaged 100 per cent assistance to the states for the first three years of implementation. The state governments were required to share 50 percent of the expenditure during the 4th and 5th years of the project and thereafter take over total responsibility for the programme. The programme was to be taken up after the conclusion of the total/post literacy campaign in a district with the objective of providing life-long learning facilities. The basic unit of the scheme was the continuing education centre (CEC) with a nodal continuing education centre (NCEC) overseeing the working of a cluster of CECs.

The Concept

The matrix of programmes that constitute the Scheme of Continuing Education, is both a stage in the educational journey f a learner and progression towards the ideal state of a society. It constitutes a milestone in educational attainment because a non-literate person passes through the phases of basic literacy and post literacy and develops a strong demand for further learning inputs. it is also an ideal state because ultimately, what all of us seek, is a social environment in which knowledge and information are important determinants of human development.

The Indian Context

In India , the Scheme of Continuing Education is taking shape in the background of the extensive literacy campaigns launched in various parts of the country after the establishment of the National Literacy Mission in May 1988. The idea of post literacy and continuing education programmes, however had evolved much earlier. In the absence of a learning environment and effective programmes of post literacy and continuing education, the efforts made in literacy programmes yielded limited results. Realising this, the Government started funding a post literay and continuing education programmes as early as 1982-83. This programme was initially envisioned as a four month post literacy programme and a one year follow-up programme after basic literacy. It was an effort to provide some post literacy support to neo-literate but the programme structure was not elaborately designed.

When the Notional Policy of Education was formulated in 1986, considerable attention was given to the need for creation of satisfactory arrangements for post literacy and continuing education. The need to establish continuing education centres for adults; promotion of the reading habit through libraries and reading rooms; use of audio-visual media; programmes of distance education and provision of skill-upgradation and technical skills were regarded as critical factors for a useful post literacy and continuing education programme.

The Revised Plan of Action formulated as a sequel to the National Policy on Education stated that our adult education programme should include: "Self-directed continuing education in the perspective of lifelong learning through library service, newspapers for neo-literate, Charcha Mandals (Discussion Groups) and such other activities. This may also include skill development programmes for personal, social and occupational development".

With this objective in view, the Government decided in February 1988 to establish Jana Shikshan Nilayams (JSNs), or Public Education Centres. A JSN was set up for every 4-5 villages to cover a population of about 5,000. The intention behind establishing JSNs all over the country in a phased manner was to institutionalise the post literacy and continuing education programme and converge various activities at one nodal centre. JSNs included programmes that were being organised as part of farmer’s training programmes, rural radio forums, youth clubs, women’s groups (mahila mandals), mobile and village library systems and rural reading rooms.

Basic Postulates

1) It would be pertinent to first mention some ideas that form the theoretical underpinnings of the CE Schemes as it is implemented in India. These ideas can be listed as:

a.       Basic literacy, post literacy and continuing education need not be viewed as totally separate programmes, but should be seen as forming a coherent learning continuum. Such a stand-point has the following implications:

o        There should be linkages between basic literacy, post literacy and continuing education.

o        The three programmes must strive towards a unified programmatic, pedagogic and social perspective.

a.       The CE scheme is intended to establish a responsive, alternative structure for life long learning.

b.      The CE scheme should be capable of responding to the needs of all sections of society.

c.       Learning is not only a function of alphabets but constitutes some aspect of every method of human capacity building.

d.      Learning should begin at, and be based on, the existing cultural and technical skills of the people and inculcate a sense of pride in them for their accomplishments.

2) TLC’s have resulted in a positive change in attitude and a new confidence among learners. The stage reached by the learners in a district which has successfully completed the TLC as well as the PLC phase, clearly points towards the need to sustain the educational process and to provide learning opportunities on a continuing basis. As citizens become more aware of the power and significance of education as an agency for improving their lives they tend to plan out longer term learning goals and achieve shorter term learning experiences to meet immediate needs.

3) We can therefore say that the context of the CE scheme in India is determined by the following circumstances:

o        Successful completion of TLC and PLC.

o        The potential need of adult learners to further enhance their skills on their own terms and at their own convenience.

o        Raised expectations from literacy and learning.

o        Need for learning arrangements for out of school adolescents and school dropouts.

o        Need for alternative life-long for learning.

4) In view of this, the basic parameters that have been kept in mind while formulating the CE scheme are:

o        Unlike, TLC, it is not time specific but organised on a more continuos basis.

o        Capable of dealing with adult literacy requirements.

o        Multidimensional and multi-sectoral in scope and delivery system.

o        Capable of addressing itself to the needs of a large and diverse clientele.

o        Participative and flexible.

o        Capable of creating an environment and demand for learning.

o        Would draw upon facilities provided by existing formal, non-formal and informal sectors of education.

Beneficiaries

The beneficiaries of CE programmes would include the follwing:

o        Neo-literate who complete functional literacy/post literacy courses under TLC , PLC or other programmes.

o        School dropouts.

o        Pass-outs of non-formal education programme and

o        All other members of the community interested in availing opportunities for life-ling learning.

Structure

1) To fulfill the objectives of the programme, the structure of Continuing Education Centres (CECs) and Nodal Continuing Education Centres (NCECs) has been envisaged in the scheme. Since, continuing education is, by definition, provision of opportunities for life-long learning, setting up local community based CECs has become indispensable for effective implementation of the CE programme. The following guiding principles are to be kept in mind while establishing the CECs and NCECs:

o        Establishment of CECs/NCECs should be planned on an area-specific and community based approach.

o        Ordinarily, one CEC is to be setup for a population of about 2000 to 2500 in a village so that it caters to the needs of at least 500-1000 neo-literates. Relaxation is permitted in sparsely populated areas.

o        One NCEC will be established a s the basis of a cluster of 10-15 CECs.

o        The CEC/NCEC will be under the charge of a facilitator called the Prerak, who would be , as far as possible, a member of the local community. A literacy volunteer should be preferred.

2.      As mentioned above, the principal objective of establishing CECs is to get them to serve as windows or a focal service points where diverse kinds of CE programmes can be taken up for all sections of the population. CECs are established in a district after the completion of TLC and PLC. The broad functions of CECs can be enumerated as follows:

o        Teaching – learning centre for remaining non-literates and neo-litertes.

o        Library and reading room

o        Venue for group discussion.

o        Venue for vocational training programmes and skill upgradation.

o        Venue for extension facility of other development departments.

o        Promoting sports and adventure activities.

o        Venue for recreational and cultural activities.

o        A composite information windows.

o        Serve as a community centre.

2.      Great care is expected to be taken in the setting up of CECs and Nodal CECs in a village. The location and housing of the centres is to be done in active consultation with the local community. The interest of women and the weaker sections of society are to be kept in mind while setting up CECs and NCECs to ensure their unimpeded access. The facilitator should, as far as possible, be a person drawn from the local community. The selection of the facilitator (Prerak) of the centres is to ben done with the full consent and participation of the community.

CE Programmes

Apart from establishment of Continuing Education Centres, a CE Project ordinarily comprises of programmes that can be basically classified as:

o        Equivalency Programmes (EP),

o        Income Generating Programmes (IGPs),

o        Quality of Life Improvement Programmes(QLIPs),

o        Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIPPs),and

o        Future Oriented Programmes (FOPs).

A CE Project is expected to comprise all continuing education programmes and activities proposed to be taken up in a singe district. However, in the first year of the implemtation of the programme, priority is given to the identification and setting up of CEC / NCEs, identification and training of Preraks, establishment of reading rooms and libraries, acquisition of audio-visual material and other infrastructure; and organisation of various extension and development activities. Major innovative programmes (IPs) are taken up when the requisite infrastructure and manpower is suitably available to sustain these programmes.

Equivalency Programmes

1.      The Continuing Education Scheme of the National Literacy Mission envisage a number of different type of programmes which would give neo-literates an opportunity to attain different competencies and thus move towards self-sustenance and self-reliance.

2.      The Equivalency Programme is one such programme. As the name indicates, the objective of the Programme is to provide an alternate education programme that is equivalent to the existing formal system of education, be it related to general or vocational education. This programme is targeted towards those neo-literates who aspire to continue their education and acquire a degree / Certification that would place them on an equal standing with others who have successfully completed their studies from in the formal system of education. Thus the underlying objective is to being parity between different systems of education, thereby ensuring that every learner has quality of opportunity if he/she desires to continue studying.

3.      At this point, the primary aim of the National Literacy Mission is to find a mechanism by the neo-literates from literacy campaigns can acquire basic education. Since most such learners cannot access the formal school system due to its rigidities of age, prior educational status, barriers of geography [distance], social restrictions on girls’ education, lack of infrastructure, etc, the open learning and non-formal systems are more suitable for such learning. Moreover, institutions that can support these equivalency programmes already exist.

4.      One such programme that can be adopted as an equivalency programme is the Open Basic Education Programme that was initiated as a pilot project of National Literacy Mission and National Open School. Other programmes by which linkages with NFE Scheme and formal schools are established can also be visualised.

5.      Target Group

The target groups of the programme are as follows:

1.      Neo-literates who have successfully participated in the TLC and PLC;

2.      School dropouts who have competencies of Class II level;

3.      NEF programme completes and dropouts who have competencies of Class II level.

Quality of Life Improvement Programmes

1.      Principles and Rational

a.       While almost all aspects of education contribute in one way or the other to improve the quality of life, some special types of educational activities may be more directed to improve the general well-being by improving the standard of living and degree of excellence of one’s lifestyle. Such activities come under the nomenclature of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs). According to the UNESCO definition:

b.      Quality of Life refers to the level of well being of the society and the degree of satisfaction of a number of human needs. Quality of life improvement programmes can be functionally defined as follows:

c.       Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs) aim to equip learners and the community with that essential knowledge, attitudes, values and skills which enable them to improve the quality of life as individuals and as members of the community.

d.      QLIPs are, therefore, development focused and have a strong future orientation. With the help of such programme, the community establishes a vision of future and devisees and undertakes development activities to achieve that vision through education.

1.      Quality of Life

a.       The concept of quality of life has different meanings, interpretation and expectation for different individuals and communities. Reviewing various ideas and definitions together, in the Indian context, the concept, Quality of Life could be viewed as "A concept involving a relative assessment of human well-being in terms of the overall standards of living of society and the degree of excellence in an individual’s lifestyle".

b.      The concept of well-being is interpreted in terms of satisfying both economic and social needs.

3. . Target Group

The target group comprises neo-literates, youth groups, interested individuals, farmers, small entrepreneurs, unskilled/semi-skilled workers, panchayat functionaries, etc. Woman and other vulnerable groups would be especially targeted.

Individual Interest Promotion Programmes

1.      The Concept

a.       The objective of Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIPPs) in Continuing Education is to provide individuals the opportunity to participate in, and to learn (1) Social (2) Cultural (3) Spiritual (4) Helath (5) Physical and (6) Artistic interests of their choice. In operational terms, activities under the IIPPs can be identified as those that are largely meant for spending leisure time, especially hobbies.

b.      Some of the leisure time activities and hobbies require skill acquisition on the part of the participants. They include tailoring, knitting, dressmaking, preparation of food items, repair of household appliances, etc. Since they require skill acquisition, they may better be considered under the Income Generating Programmes.

c.       Some other activities of the IIPPs may overlap with those of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes. Hence the activities of the IIPPs should be strictly compartmentalised so that duplication is completely avoided.

1.      Activities

The activities that can be organised under the IIPPs may be categorised into six broad groups, viz. 1.Social 2.Cultural 3.Spiritual 4.Health 5.Physical and 6.Artistic.

i.         Social Activity

A number of activities can be conducted under this category. Some of the activities that can be offered under this category include

·         Celebrationof festivals

·         Holding melas

·         Organising exhibitions

·         Having get-together programmes

·         Excursions

Excursions may be organised as a recreational as well as educational activity. It may include tours and picnics, and visits to a number of places such as natural sites, historical places, industrial urban locations, ideal villages, pilgrimage places, etc.

ii) Cultural Activity

A number of activities can be conducted under this category. Participants may be attracted to them for their entertainment value or as leisure activities. Some ot the activities that can be offered under this category include:

Folk Art, Song, Music, Dance, Drama, Puppetry, Painting, Drawing and Handicrafts.

Selection of the type of activities, whether they should be for instance, local songs and dances or film songs of regional and national level, must be made as per the interest of the participants.

Those interested can be taught handicrafts using locally available materials.

iii) Spiritual

Activities meant to cater to the spiritual needs of the individuals, may be organised. They may include holding religious festivals, religious discourses, pilgrimages to religious places.

iv) Health

Under this category, activities meant to improve the health situation of individuals may be conducted. They may include medical check-ups, disease detection camps, health camps, yoga workshops.

v.       Physical Activity

Under this category, activities of games and sports can be organised. They will have to be selected from the locally relevant areas as per the interests of the participants.

vi) Art

Some activities of artistic interests can be organised, such as sculpture, designing and simple skills like rangoli and mehndi application.

Skill Development and Income – Generation Programmes

a.       The activities involved in the Continuing Education Programme aim at providing sample opportunities to adult learners to use, utilise and apply their literacy skills in the arena of their daily lives. The establishment of NCECs and CECs enables the creation of an environment which is conductive to:

·         the regular use and consolidation of literacy skills in real-life situations;

·         enriching knowledge and acquiring skills which improve functional capability;

·         the application of such skills that contribute to raising the level of their quality of life.

a.       As visualised by NLM, one of the vitally important target specific programmes of continuing education is that of Skill Development and Income-Generation. According to UNESCO reports: "An Income-Generation Programme helps participants acquire or upgrade vocational skills and enables them to conduct income generating activities." This general definition was focused more sharply by an additional statement: "IGPs are those vocational Continuing Education programmes delivered in a variety of contexts which are directed in particular towards those people who are currently not self-sufficient in a modern world."

b.      Skill Development and Income-Generation programmes are functional in the sense that these are largely focused on the development of functional knowledge with a view to making learning relevant to living and working. Providing vocational skills means equipping people for their direct involvement in some economic or productive activity. Acquiring vocational skills is the ability of engaging oneself in an occupation or gainful employment.

Future Oriented Programmes

It would be advisable to design future-oriented programmes on the basis of the experience we will be gaining from conducting the various programmes being implemented at present. Hence, at the moment we may concentrate on effectively implementing the programmes we have already formulated and consolidate them. We may take up the future oriented programmes at a later stage, when we have adequate experience in the programmes we are